The Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicle Test (WLTP) procedure is used to measure fuel consumption and CO2 emissions and is designed to represent everyday driving. It was launched in Europe in 2017 and better reflects on-the road performance compared to the NEDC test procedure. It is designed to enable comparisons to be drawn between different vehicles which are tested under the same controlled test conditions. The test covers different driving styles with different average speeds. Importantly, the ambient temperature used in the testing is a consistent 23C.

All-Electric Range

For our EVs, we also display the WLTP Extra High test value which reflects the less efficient scenario of motorway driving. This better illustrates the variability in real-world driving on a Mustang Mach-E or Kuga PHEV. This follows updated guidance from the Vehicle Certification Agency in the UK.

Real-World Variability. What Affects Range?

The WLTP test is performed in controlled test conditions to provide customers with the ability to see a like-for-like comparison. In the real world, as with petrol or diesel vehicles, there are multiple factors that influence and impact range performance:

Environmental Factors

  • Temperature outside and inside -Extreme cold or hot temperatures affect battery cell chemistry. EV
    Batteries need help to operate at an optimum temperature. Either cooling or heating the car while
    driving uses energy from the high voltage battery. Maintaining a consistent cabin temperature is more
    efficient than regularly turning the climate control on and off again.
  • Road terrain and surface quality -Braking downhill provides the opportunity to recharge the battery
    via regenerative braking. Driving uphill requires more energy. Using the Low (L) position on the electronic
    transmission selector provides an increased level of deceleration when you lift off the accelerator pedal.
    You can use (L) at all times if desired, but it is designed to improve drivability and efficiency while
    descending hills. For Mustang Mach-E, selecting (L) does not have any effect if one pedal drive
    is activated
  • Poor weather conditions - In addition to temperature levels, driving in windy or adverse weather
    conditions like heavy rain or snow can have a negative impact on the range. Driving into a strong headwind
    will negatively impact range performance.


  • Battery Health - You can increase the longevity of your high voltage battery by using the Departure
    Times feature. This can keep your battery at the optimal temperature and state of charge based on your
    settings and usage. Allowing your battery to cool before charging and setting the maximum state of
    charge to 90% for everyday usage improves the longevity of your high voltage battery. Storing your vehicle
    in temperatures between 0°C and 45°C is the most beneficial for the high voltage battery. You can also
    increase the battery life by maintaining your state of charge below 100%. When you park your vehicle
    for an extended period of 30 days or more, we recommend your battery be at an approximately 50%
    state of charge. Storing your vehicle’s high voltage battery at higher states of charge is less favourable
    than storing it at lower states of charge.
  • Vehicle Maintenance - Following the guidance on service intervals can ensure that the brake fluid
    level and coolant concentration remain in line with Ford’s recommendations. For Mustang Mach-E,
    enabling automatic Ford Power-Up Software Updates within the SYNC 4A system will ensure that the
    vehicle’s software is kept up to date for optimal performance
  • Tyre Condition - Tyre quality and either over or under-inflated tyres can affect performance – just like a
    petrol or diesel vehicle. Uneven wear on tyres can have an effect on range and this should be checked by
    an authorised Ford dealer to ensure wheel alignment is correct.


  • Driving Style - Fast acceleration and maintaining higher speeds above 50 mph consume
    more energy. Smoother acceleration and braking are key to achieving the best range. The One Pedal
    Drive feature on Mustang Mach-E is designed to maximise regenerative braking.
  • Payload - Transporting more weight in the form of heavy cargo or multiple passengers results in greater
    energy consumption. The more aerodynamic the vehicle, the less drag it has. Towing a trailer or, for
    Kuga PHEV, carrying a roof rack will impact range performance just as it does on a petrol or
    diesel vehicle.
  • Use of accessories - Use of electrical sockets and accessories within the vehicle, like charging your
    mobile device also consumes energy from the high-voltage battery.

Maximising All-Electric Range

There are several steps that can be taken to maximise your all-electric range:

  • Pre-conditioning the battery and cabin: Set departure times to warm the battery and prepare the cabin while plugged into a charging source. Managed via SYNC or FordPass.
  • Keep the vehicle plugged in whenever it is parked. In colder weather, parking undercover can be helpful.
  • Regenerative braking can capture and reuse more than 90% of the braking energy improving the efficiency of the battery and extending the battery range.
  • Maintaining a consistent cabin temperature is more efficient than regularly turning the climate control on and off again.